Indonesia Nature & Economy

Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
Population: 255,461,700 (2015 est.)
Land Area: 1904569 km2
Capital: Jakarta
Main cities: Surabaya, Bandung, Medan, Semarang
Languages: Bahasa Indonesia (official), English, Dutch
GDP: $869.756 billion (2013 est.)
Monetary unit: Rupiah
Exports: $102 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports – commodities: oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber
Exports – partners: Japan 19.4%, Singapore 11.8%, US 11.5%, China 7.7%, South Korea 6.4%, Taiwan 4.2% (2006)
Imports: $73 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports – commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
Imports – partners: Singapore 29.6%, China 11.2%, Japan 8.8%, South Korea 5.3%, Malaysia 4.8% (2006)
Land use: arable land: 11.03%
                 permanent crops: 7.04%
                 other: 81.93% (2005)
Natural resources: petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver

Economy Overview
Indonesia has a market-based economy in which the government plays a significant role. It owns more than 164 state-owned enterprises and administers prices on several basic goods, including fuel, rice, and electricity.
In the aftermath of the financial and economic crisis that began in mid-1997, the government took custody of a significant portion of private sector assets through acquisition of nonperforming bank loans and corporate assets through the debt restructuring process.
During the thirty years of president Suharto's "New Order" government, Indonesia's economy grew from a per capita GDP of $70 to more than $1,000 by 1996. Through prudent monetary and fiscal policies, inflation was held between 5%–10%, the rupiah was stable and predictable, and the government avoided domestic financing of budget deficits.
GDP per capita grew 545% from 1970 to 1980 as a result of the sudden increase in oil export revenues from 1973 to 1979. However, in the 1980s oil glut, the GDP per capita shrank 20% from 1980 to 1990 and by 13% from 1990 to 2000.
The government has introduced significant reforms in the financial sector including tax and customs reforms, the use of Treasury bills, and improved capital market supervision. Indonesia's new investment law, passed in March 2007, seeks to address some of the concerns of foreign and domestic investors.

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