Innovation and development of Zhongguancun science park

By Xu Zhengxiang,Fan Rui and Lin Qiaoying,[Comprehensive Reports]

Abstract: In the era of an innovation-driven knowledge economy, a patent is a key indicator in the judgment of innovation and development which goes in line with international rules. This Report aims at analyzing, through information synthesis and comparative analysis, the development of patents of enterprises in Zhongguancun Science Park based on data of patent applications, grants and valid invention patents from 1996 to 2012. This Report will, from the perspective of patents, discuss the park’s innovation and development, and make appropriate proposals. Due to limited space, only some excerpts of this Report are published here in the magazine. For the full version, please visit China IP’s web site at www.chinaipmagazine.com


The Zhongguancun Model zone, which originated from Zhongguancun Electronics Street in early 1980s, has been the oldest, largest high-tech zone in China with the most far-reaching influence.


After over 20 years of development, the zone has been home to nearly 20,000 high-tech enterprises, forming a high-tech industry cluster represented by electronics information, biological medicine, energy and environmental protection, new materials, advanced manufacturing and aerospace, featuring research and development as its core. The zone has formed a distinctive pattern of “one zone with multiple parks” in its development and become a high-end inter-district industrial area. In view of the fact that the zone has reflected China’s innovation and development and China’s ambition in miniature to build an innovation-oriented country, this Report intends to analyze the zone from the perspective of patents in a bid to get a glimpse of China’s innovation and the aim of building an innovation-oriented country.


I. Research Object and Methods, and Sources of Data

1. Research Object

In October 2012, the State Council approved an adjustment to the spatial scale and layout of the model zone, expanding the zone from “a zone with 10 parks” ( i.e. : Haidian Park, Fengtai Park, Changping Park, Electronics City, Yizhuang Park, Desheng Park, Yonghe Park, Shijingshan Park, Tongzhou Park and Daxing Biomedicine Industrial Base) to “a zone with 16 parks” (i.e. : Dongcheng Park, Xicheng Park, Chaoyang Park, Haidian Park, Fengtai Park, Shijingshan Park, Mentougou Park, Fangshan Park, Tongzhou Park, Shunyi Park, Daxing-Yizhuang Park, Changping Park, Pinggu Park, Huairou Park, Miyun Park and Yanqing Park). Because the new parks were not covered by the statistics until March 2013, this Report will only analyze enterprises in the 10 parks before the approved adjustment on the basis of data from the Administrative Committee of Zhongguancun Science Park from 1996 (the year when the statistics administration began to publish separate data on Zhongguancun) to 2012 to get an overall picture of the zone’s patent development over the past 17 years.


2. Research Methods

This Report mainly adopts methods of documentary research, comparative analysis and information synthesis.


3. Data Sources

The data for this Report comes from the following two sources: (1) The patent database provided by the Chinese State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO); (2) The database of company directories provided by the Administrative Committee of Zhongguancun Science Park (1996-2012).


4. Note

The technical fields in this Report are based on classified codes for high-tech fields of enterprises listed in Statistical Reporting System of Zhongguancun Science Park compiled by Beijing Municipal Bureau of Statistics.


II. Overall picture of patent Ddevelopment of Zhongguancun science park

1. Patent Applications and Grants

From 1996 to 2012, Zhongguancun enterprises filed 124,203 patent applications, including 78,334 applications of patents for invention, accounting for 63.1% of the total; 59,391 patent grants, including 21,318 grants of patents for invention, accounting for 35.9% of the total.

Table 1: Patent Applications and Grants of Zhongguancun Enterprises (1996 – 2012)
Year
Inventions
Utility Models
Designs
Total
Applications
Grants
Applications
Grants
Applications
Grants
Applications
Grants
1996
51
4
150
67
27
12
228
83
1997
49
12
124
75
18
28
191
115
1998
67
9
189
101
65
20
321
130
1999
120
14
330
175
134
79
584
268
2000
205
26
485
310
181
214
871
550
2001
430
51
605
457
238
198
1273
706
2002
1126
43
884
572
360
275
2370
890
2003
1264
184
968
727
418
368
2650
1279
2004
1555
340
645
734
325
324
2525
1398
2005
3324
405
824
685
459
319
4607
1409
2006
3908
735
1177
889
485
398
5570
2022
2007
4962
1093
1465
1522
540
431
6967
3046
2008
12842
1834
2963
1972
742
499
16547
4305
2009
9113
2566
3996
2916
1559
880
14668
6362
2010
9128
2890
4475
4429
1203
1515
14806
8834
2011
12802
4992
7309
5971
1755
1624
21866
12587
2012
17388
6120
8981
7646
1790
1641
28159
15407
Total
78334
21318
35570
29248
10299
8825
124203
59391

(1) Patent applications and grants increase by leaps and bounds.


Zhongguancun enterprises had 228 patent applications in 1996 and 28,159 in 2012, 123.5 times higher than 1996. Patent grants rose 185.6 times higher, increasing from 83 in 1996 to 15,407 in 2012. Both patent applications and grants grew substantially.


In terms of growth rate, the average annual growth rate of patent applications by Zhongguancun enterprises hit 35.1%, nearly two-fold that of Beijing over the same period (17.9%), tallying with the high-growth economic indicators of the zone (the average annual growth rate of total revenue of Zhongguancun enterprises amounted to 31.9% over the same period).


(2) Patent applications grow rapidly, becoming an important support for patent growth for Beijing.


According to data, the growth of Zhongguancun patent applications can be divided into three phases, namely, 100, 1,000 and 10,000 patent applications per year.


The first phase, with 100 patent applications per year, spans from 1996 to 2000; the second phase, with 1,000 patent applications per year, spans from 2001 to 2007; and the third phase, with 10,000 patent applications per year, spans from 2008 to 2012.


On the basis of annual patent applications of each phase, we can find that the number of patent applications filed by Zhongguancun enterprises during the three phases accounted for 5.9%, 18.3% and 29.9% respectively of that of Beijing as a whole over the same period of time. Thus, if the volume of patent applications filed by Zhongguancun enterprises expanded from one phase into the next, the proportion would rise by 10 percentage points or more. This trend shows that Zhongguancun enterprises have witnessed accelerated growth over recent years in patent applications, becoming an important support of the patent growth in Beijing.


2. Structure of patent applications and grants

(1) Relatively excellent structure for patent applications and leading proportion of inventions across China.

Data shows that patent applications of Zhongguancun enterprises are characterized by a relatively excellent structure, with inventions taking the majority role and utility models accounting for large quantities. Judging from the types of patent applications over the years, the structure has undergone two significant changes. The first change started at the beginning of the year when they first began conducting statistics. From there on the proportion of invention patents rose year on year, starting at 22.4% in 1996 to 77.6% in 2008, where it reached its peak. During this change the proportion of utility models and designs was relatively low. The second change began after 2008, the proportion of utility models applications increased year by year from 17.9 % in 2008 to 33.4 % in 2011, while the proportion of patent applications dropped to around 60%.


According to statistics, in the Eleventh Five Year Plan period (2007-2012), the aggregate number of invention patents across China increased dramatically, but invention patent applications and grants only accounted for 33.8% and 19.9% respectively. In contrast, the patent structure of Zhongguancun was relatively better.


(2) Patent grants grow rapidly, and the growth of invention grants exceeds expectations.


After years of development, Zhongguancun patent grants had spiraled upward in the early stages and witnessed exponential growth until 2006. In terms of the three types of patent grants, the growth rate of utility model patents followed closely that of invention patents in 2006 and 2008.


It is worth mentioning that Zhongguancun enterprises had 4,992 invention patent grants in 2011, 2.72 times higher than 2008. This achievement was fulfilled four years ahead of the established goal set by the Zhongguancun National Innovation Model Zone Development Plan (2011-2020), which was to reach a level “twice that of the invention patent grants in 2008 by 2015.” The steady increase of invention patent grants and its proportion over recent years indicate further optimization of the patent structure of Zhongguancun enterprises and rapid increase of their innovation capabilities.


3. Development of groups of patent enterprises

(1) The number of patent enterprises continues to grow, and powerful enterprises active in patent filings stand out.

In 2012 the number of Zhongguancun enterprises with patent filings continued to maintain high growth, rising 16.7% to reach 2,227, accounting for 34.1% of all Zhongguancun enterprises. Among them, 41 enterprises accounted for more than 100 applications, a ranking 10 places up from 2011; 18 enterprises accounted for more than 100 patent grants, a ranking 4 places up from 2011. Also in this year, the number of enterprises with patent grants reached a record high of 2,186, an increase of 12.0% year on year. The number jumped from 10-fold to 30-fold when compared to 1996. The expanding number of enterprises with patents shows the strong vitality of innovation of Zhongguancun enterprises.


The number of Zhongguancun enterprises with patents has been expanding and powerful enterprises active in patent filings have stood out. In 2011 the first enterprises to record more than 1,000 annual patent applications came from Zhongguancun. BOE Technology Group Co., Ltd., and Beiqi Foton Motor Co., Ltd. with 1,146 and 1,070 annual patent applications respectively, became the first of their kind. In 2012 Lenovo (Beijing) Co., Ltd. (Lenovo) and Qihoo 360 Technology Co., Ltd. became new entrants, by filing 1,936 and 1,029 annual patent applications respectively. With powerful enterprises at the core, Zhongguancun enterprises which filed more than 100 patent applications in 2012 had 13,300 patent applications in total, accounting for half of the total number of patent applications filed by Zhongguancun enterprises for the year.


In terms of the total revenue of the powerful enterprises, the number of Zhongguancun enterprises with over 100 patent applications in 2012 hit 35, with each earning over RMB100 million in annual gross revenue, accounting for 85.4% of the total number of powerful Zhongguancun enterprises. The emergence of more enterprise groups with advantages in patents had become Zhongguancun’s strong base for secondmover advantage in innovation and development.


(2) A small number of enterprises have the majority of patents, and distribution of patent applications or grants follows the 80-20 rule.
From 1996 to 2012, the number of Zhongguancun enterprises with patent applications amounted to 5,781, but about 80% of the enterprises had less than 10 patent applications.


Statistics show that 4,735 enterprises had less than 10 patent applications, accounting for 74.1% of all enterprises with patent applications. The number of patent applications of these enterprises accounted for 12.1% of the total filed by Zhongguancun enterprises. Correspondingly, 12 enterprises had filed over 1,000 patent applications, accounting for 0.1% of enterprises with patent applications, but 24.3% of all patent applications by Zhongguancun enterprises.


It is also true for the distribution of patent grants by enterprises. The number of enterprises with less than 10 patent grants accounted for 81.7% of enterprises with patent grants, but only 22.3% of all patent grants.


Either in patent applications or patent grants, the distribution of enterprises generally goes in line with the 80-20 rule, with 20% of enterprises controlling 80% of patent applications.

Table 2: The Development trend of Zhongguancun Enterprises with Patents (1996 - 2012)
Year
The number of enterprises with patents
Applications
The number of enterprises granted patents
Grants
1996
102
228
60
83
1997
112
191
61
115
1998
141
321
87
130
1999
194
584
125
268
2000
309
871
178
550
2001
366
1273
265
706
2002
503
2370
288
890
2003
555
2650
369
1279
2004
549
2525
434
1398
2005
596
4607
479
1409
2006
825
5570
555
2022
2007
972
6967
826
3046
2008
1458
16447
1000
4305
2009
1787
14668
1365
6362
2010
1694
14806
1718
8834
2011
1996
21866
2018
12587
2012
2227
28159
2186
15407

 

III. Patent development of various technical fields in Zhongguancun

1. Seven technical fields enjoy aggregate 1,000 patent applications, electronics information taking the lead.

From 1996 to 2012, over 1,000 patent applications were filed in seven technical fields: electronics information (62,596 applications, accounting for 52.8%); advanced manufacturing (20,556, 17.3%); biological medicine (10,604, 8.9%); new materials (8,856, 7.5%); new energy (8,217, 6.9%); environmental protection (4,383, 3.7%) and modern agriculture (1,655, 1.4%).


Among them, electronics information took the leading position with 52.8% of total patent applications in Zhongguancun. Modern agriculture, aerospace, nuclear technology application each had only less than 100 annual patent applications. Ocean engineering had the least patent applications with only 39 for the past 17 years.


2. Electronics information and advanced manufacturing enjoy fastest growth in patent applications.

In terms of changes in patent applications over the years, electronics information and advanced manufacturing have witnessed the most significant increases in patent applications and the fastest spiraling growth. In 2012 the two fields reported record patent applications, showing a strong growth momentum. Biological medicine, new energy and new materials maintained steady growth continuously with an almost equal number of patent applications.


3. Electronics information takes the lead in all fields in patent grants.

In general, from 1996 to 2012, each field had patent grants at various growth rates and the distribution showed significant concentration. Electronics information took the leading position with 26,293 patents grants, accounting for 46.7% of Zhongguancun’s total, followed by advanced manufacturing (11,946, 21.2%), new materials (5168, 9.2%) and new energy (4,875, 8.7%). The combined patent grants in nuclear technology application, aerospace, marine engineering accounted for less than 2%.

Table 3: Patent Applications of Various Technical Fields of Zhongguancun (1996 – 2012)
Year
Electronics information
Advanced manufacturing
Biological medicine
New energy
New materials
Environmental protection
Modern agriculture
Aerospace
Nuclear technology application
Marine engineering
1996
46
40
9
56
27
12
5
3
 
1
1997
49
17
13
49
17
14
2
5
 
 
1998
88
37
9
67
72
18
6
1
 
 
1999
200
71
18
125
78
22
23
4
9
 
2000
342
148
27
154
70
58
15
6
6
3
2001
611
162
78
192
98
71
9
5
3
 
2002
1326
280
154
317
129
56
16
6
15
 
2003
1519
267
219
323
100
82
20
8
22
 
2004
1568
190
334
134
126
72
22
5
8
 
2005
2611
459
859
296
92
137
40
 
45
 
2006
3336
719
532
403
140
185
38
24
61
 
2007
3585
973
753
631
397
203
78
40
37
1
2008
6955
1885
3124
1030
865
956
208
60
115
 
2009
7262
2630
1210
1178
982
457
218
80
86
4
2010
7231
2863
1061
958
1105
566
215
126
40
15
2011
10696
4405
1094
1421
1915
682
243
270
113
7
2012
15171
5410
1110
1522
2004
792
497
336
139
8
Total
62596
20556
10604
8856
8217
4383
1655
979
699
39

Table 4: Patent Grants of Various Technical Fields of Zhongguancun (1996 – 2012)
Year
Electronics information
Advanced manufacturing g
Biological medicine
New energy
New materials
Environmental protection
Modern agriculture
Aerospace
Nuclear technology application
Marine engineering
1996
17
7
4
21
10
8
1
 
 
1
1997
18
16
4
33
13
9
2
 
 
 
1998
28
28
5
25
15
8
3
2
 
 
1999
69
28
4
52
72
19
4
6
 
1
2000
173
65
8
156
70
31
20
4
6
1
2001
287
133
16
104
62
50
7
3
4
1
2002
461
125
32
95
76
60
7
1
7
 
2003
590
189
50
220
96
49
9
5
22
 
2004
772
201
42
142
79
66
21
5
9
 
2005
762
152
105
117
104
69
14
4
20
 
2006
990
295
170
268
94
114
22
1
21
 
2007
1394
440
298
279
210
149
50
14
57
28
2008
2087
696
305
385
349
142
83
21
36
1
2009
3141
1157
354
564
420
246
85
63
54
 
2010
3949
1908
405
696
736
373
107
67
67
2
2011
5219
2847
951
904
1058
471
181
156
87
8
2012
6336
3659
843
1107
1411
585
253
220
117
5
Total
26293
11946
3596
5168
4875
2449
869
572
507
48

 

IV. Analysis of valid invention patents and their life

1. Comprehensive analysis of valid invention patents

Based on a comprehensive analysis of valid invention patents spanning to 2012, 2,427 Zhongguancun enterprises had invention patents, accounting for 29.8% of Beijing as a whole. Zhongguancun enterprises had 20,212 invention patents with over 20,000 valid invention patents, accounting for 25.8% of the cumulative total by Zhongguancun enterprises. The proportion was two percentage points higher than that of the city in total, reflecting a relatively high proportion of valid invention patents by Zhongguancun enterprises.


Meanwhile, valid invention patents by Zhongguancun enterprises accounted for more than 60% (60.2%) of those of Beijing. Five Zhongguancun enterprises were on the top 10 list in the number of invention patents, of which Lenovo snatched the second position with 1,297 invention patents.


2. Analysis of the life of valid invention patents and distribution of technical fields

(1) The life of the average invention patent held by a Zhongguancun enterprise most commonly spans 3 to 7 years, showing striking gaps compared with patents filed by foreign applicants.


By the end of 2012, Zhongguancun enterprises had 20,212 valid invention patents in the aggregate.


Based on analyses, the life of valid invention patents held by Zhongguancun enterprises mostly runs between 3 and 7 years, the eighth year can be seen as a turning point.


In a report on valid patents released by the SIPO, valid invention patents from domestic applicants maintain a life of 3-6 years, while those of foreign applicants in China run mostly for 5-9 years. In other words, the life of valid invention patents by Zhongguancun enterprises is one year longer than that of domestic patents on average, taking the lead across China, but significantly lagging behind those held by foreign applicants in China.


This phenomenon may reflect two problems: First, patent applications by Zhongguancun enterprises began to grow rapidly around 2005. Before that, Zhongguancun enterprises had a relatively weak sense of awareness in patent filings. Second, the patent maintenance of Zhongguancun enterprises was slightly higher than the national average, but significantly lower than the international level. This reflects a lack of core patents from Zhongguancun enterprises, and the majority of patent technologies and economic value must be improved and developed.


(2) The number of valid invention patents in electronics information is more than half of that of the zone, and the average life of environmental protection and new energy patents is 4 years.


As seen in the figure showing the distribution of valid invention patents of Zhongguancun, the number of valid invention patents in electronics information is significantly higher than that of other technical fields, representing 53.7% of that of Zhongguancun enterprises in total, followed by advanced manufacturing and biological medicine representing 12.1% and 10.6% respectively. The number of valid invention patents from the six major technical fields addressed is significantly higher than that of other technical fields.


Statistically, the life of a valid invention patent in the six major technical fields is concentrated to around 3 to 7 years.


Electronics information, advanced manufacturing, biological medicine and new materials enjoy the longest life of 7 years among the six technical fields. Environmental protection and new energy have a life of only 3-5 years with the least number of valid invention patents.


Judging from the above statistics, the six major technical fields have greater and stronger technical development and innovation capacities as a whole than modern agriculture, nuclear technology application, marine engineering, aerospace and other technical fields. Among the six major technical fields, electronics information, advanced manufacturing, new materials and biological medicine have more advantages. In particular, electronics information steams far ahead in the number of valid invention patents and the length of life, fully embodying the innovation advantages of electronics information in Zhongguancun.

Table 5: Distribution of Length of life of Valid Invention Patents within the Six Key Fields of Zhongguancun
Length
Electronics information
Advanced manufacturing
Biological medicine
New materials
New energy
Environmental protection
1
14
5
15
10
6
6
2
617
133
101
104
127
61
3
1146
476
451
279
174
106
4
2103
576
255
373
169
108
5
2440
590
421
327
177
103
6
1448
270
246
229
53
46
7
1030
222
211
167
44
50
8
721
61
185
92
27
31
9
560
31
96
119
33
11
10
472
38
75
94
30
21
11
174
15
31
77
20
10
12
68
15
21
33
21
3
13
37
6
9
37
6
2
14
11
2
5
21
3
2
15
9
 
6
12
1
4
16
3
2
6
10
2
1
17
 
5
2
8
1
 
18
2
2
2
13
2
 
19
3
1
2
10
1
 
20
 
 
 
3
 
 
Valid invention patent applications
10858
2450
2140
2018
897
565
Length of life
3-7
3-7
3-7
3-7
2-5
3-5

 

V. Patent development of powerful enterprises in Zhongguancun

From 1996 to 2012, 12 Zhongguancun enterprises each had over 1,000 patent applications in the aggregate, and there were 29 enterprises with over 500 applications. The following analysis will be based on a series of patent indicators and on the presumption that these enterprises are powerful enterprises active in patent applications.


1. 21 out of the top 29 enterprises with aggregate patent applications are also on the top 30 list of patent grants.

According to statistics, 21 out of the top 29 enterprises with aggregate patent applications are also on the list of top 30 enterprises in patent grants. Meanwhile, 19 out of top 29 enterprises are on the list of top 30 enterprises in valid patent applications. Based on the aforesaid proportion, enterprises ranked top in patent applications also enjoy relatively good patent quality and maintenance, indicating stable positions of the top 29 enterprises as powerful enterprises.


2. The total number of patents does not have an advantage over that of domestic enterprises, with significantly lower invention reserves.

In terms of the number of patents, some powerful Zhongguancun enterprises had over 1,000 aggregate patent applications, but there was a huge gap compared with superior domestic enterprises advantageous in patents. For example, Lenovo, ranked No. 1 in the aggregate number of patents in Zhongguancun, had 6,144 patent applications and 2,817 patent grants, but still lagging exponentially behind Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. (Huawei) and ZTE Corporation in Shenzhen High-tech Industrial Park. Huawei had 36,000 patent applications, 6 times those of Lenovo, and 20,000 patent grants, 7 times those of Lenovo.


The gap is equally significant in the area of valid invention patents. Lenovo was the only enterprise that had reported over 1,000 valid invention patents, while enterprises ranked 10th to 20th only had less than 200 valid invention patents in reserve. According to rankings of top domestic enterprises in valid invention patents by 2012 released by the SIPO, Huawei had 14,601 valid invention patents, 11.3 times those of Lenovo; while BYD Company Limited ranked 10th had 1,251 valid invention patents which ranked second in Zhongguancun.


However, Lenovo, which ranked 1st in Zhongguancun, would lose out among the top 10 rankings of valid invention patents filed by foreign right holders.

Table 6: Comparison of Rankings of Valid Patents and Grants of Top 10 Aggregate Patent Applications in Zhongguancun (1996-2012)
Rankings of applications
Name of applicant
Invention applications
Total
Rankings of grants
Ranking of valid patents
1
Lenovo (Beijing) Co., Ltd.
4406
6144
1
1
2
Datang Mobile Communications Equipment Co., Ltd.
3777
3881
5
6
3
BOE Technology Group Co., Ltd.
1803
3020
8
26
4
LG Electronics(China) Research and Development Center Co., Ltd
2217
2578
3
60
5
China Electric Power Research Institute
1538
2425
9
10
6
Beiqi Foton Motor Co., Ltd.
519
2068
2
44
7
Vimicro Corporation
1928
2067
6
3
8
Beijing BOE Optoelectronics Technology Co., Ltd.
1048
1895
4
5
9
General Research Institute for Nonferrous Metals
1217
1760
10
4
10
Founder Group
1546
1693
12
8

 

3. Breakthrough has been made in expanding overseas patent portfolio, but not on a large scale, and technical fields need expanding.

Expanding the overseas patent portfolio has been an inevitable call for Zhongguancun enterprises, powerful enterprises in particular, to stand out against the backdrop of increasing competition in the international market. However, so far the expansion has not been satisfactory. Prior to 2007, not a single Zhongguancun enterprise was listed on the WIPO Top 500 PCT Applicants. In 2007, the highest ranking for a Zhongguancun enterprise was only 679th place. On the List of the Top 500 PCT Applicants in 2009, Datang Mobile Communications Equipment Co., Ltd. (Datang) became the first Zhongguancun enterprise to break through and get ranked 188th. In 2010, Datang jumped 30 places up to 158th on the list. However, as of 2012 no Zhongguancun enterprise had been able to get listed on the WIPO list, and the number of enterprises filing PCT applications was also on a small scale. Powerful Zhongguancun enterprises need to accelerate in expanding their patent portfolios overseas.


In terms of technical fields, the distribution of global PCT patent applications has undergone significant changes since 2009. Most industries have seen a decline in PCT applications, but the microstructure and nanotechnology of the chemical industry increased by 10.2%; the semiconductor sector in electrical engineering industry grew by 10.0%; thermal processes and appliances in the mechanical engineering industry rose by 7.2% and the engine segment grew by 2.9%.


Based on the above, during the period of post-financial crisis, global multinationals have been aware of technical transformation. Historical experience shows that an economic crisis is often followed by a new round of technological revolution. The growth of patent applications in these areas probably indicates that the commanding height of strategic emerging industries will come from these areas.


In contrast, PCT applications by Zhongguancun enterprises, or even domestic enterprises, still involve a relatively small scale of industries, mainly in communications and networking. The patent distribution of strategic emerging industries needs to be accelerated. Based on the above analysis, patents filings by Zhongguancun enterprises have grown by leaps and bounds and been on the right track. The number of annual patent filings have grown rapidly from 100 to 1,000 and to 10,000, and the intensity index of patents has also increased annually. The proportion of enterprises is higher than that of China on average, but there is still much room for improvement when it comes to the development positioning and goals.


(Translated by Wang Hongjun)


 


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