瑞典知识产权概况

总第63期 China IP发表,[专利]文章

  瑞典的经济总量在北欧地区位居前列,因此对于那些在北欧各国进行销售、制造或者在该地区进行商品或服务贸易的外国企业及个人来说,瑞典都是知识产权保护的一个重要战略辖区。

  瑞典在国际上大部分的与知识产权相关的公约和条约中都是成员国,其中包括《巴黎公约》(斯德哥尔摩法案),《伯尔尼公约》,《建立世界知识产权组织公约》,《欧洲专利公约》,《专利合作条约》,WTO/TRIPs协议以及《马德里协定》。此外,作为欧盟的成员国之一,瑞典还施行了欧共体在知识产权方面的各项规定。

  专利

      (1)法律框架
  
      瑞典国内的专利批准与实行的依据是《专利法案》(1967:837),《专利手续法令》(1967:838)以及《专利局条例》(瑞典专利注册局FS2007:4)中的实施细则。最新修订的《审查指南》(RL)于2011年7月1日生效。若对专利局的审查结果存有异议,可上诉至专利权上诉法院(PBR)。

  最高行政法院有权修改专利权上诉法院的判定结果。斯德哥尔摩第五区的地区法院能够受理侵权类案件以及专利申报和专利授予后的有效性程序。与同一项专利相关的有效性程序与侵权诉讼通常被合并处理。若地区法庭的判决结果对某一方不利,该方在获得上诉许可后,可上诉至斯维亚上诉法院及最高院。

  (2)授予程序
 
      国家专利授予的实质性法律框架与《欧洲专利公约(EPC)》相协调一致,均包含立法与判例两部分。在RA1990ref.84(PhilipsGloeilampenfabrieken;1990年6月13日)的判决中,最高行政法院宣布瑞典国内各级法院在处理有关专利有效性类案件时,应依照欧洲专利局(EPO)上诉委员会的判例法。

  在管理规定方面,瑞典于2007年颁布了《专利法条约》,从而达到了国际上认可的有关延展时限、继续处理和恢复权利的最低要求(Arts.11和12PLT)。若超出了PRV所规定的时限,可根据《专利法案》第15章的相关规定要求进行继续处理,仅需提交很低的费用并且无需进行实质性论证。根据要求,由于未遵从某项时限要求而丧失的全部或部分权利可依照《专利法案》第72章的规定被视为剥夺权利无效(恢复原状),只需证明在该情况下已履行注意义务即可。应指出的是,此类申请应在未履行时限到期后一年内提出,并且在某些PLT缔约国此类“非故意性”不足以恢复专利授予。

  (3)授予后异议、限制及撤销

      与Art.99EPC相类似,瑞典的《专利法案》允许在专利授予后的9个月内提出异议。除了在Art.100EPC中所详尽列出的情况外,如果专利权人没有得到授权,瑞典的国家专利也同样可以提出异议,从而可以由第三方在高效的专利异议程序管理框架下处理有关授权的争议,而无需经过地区法庭。

  专利权人可根据其意愿要求自始至终地限制或撤销,此项规定与Art.105aEPC相类似。当专利权人发现对其专利的现有保护范畴不利的先前技术时,可考虑提出此项要求。限制请求可在专利失效后提出。对于在瑞典生效的欧洲专利来说,可向PRV提出限制请求并仅在瑞典生效,或者向欧洲专利局提出请求,并在所有缔约国生效。在后者的情况下,该欧洲专利将在瑞典重新生效,并获得新的范畴。

  (4)与国外申请者相关的重要信息--国家专利

      尽管瑞典专利注册局的工作语言是瑞典语,但其审查团是用双语进行工作的。因此,瑞典专利注册局接受英语的专利申请,并将根据实际情况进行具体判定,而无需再提交翻译稿。PRV还将根据要求将判定翻译成英语。申请者可根据其发明的重要性以及与先前技术的相斥程度来选择继续进行申请或使其失效。在前者的情况下,瑞典专利注册局要求在公布的两个月前将申请书全文翻译为英语,即优先权日的18个月后。在瑞典没有业务或居所的申请者要求依照《专利法案》第12章的规定通过代理进行申请。

  (5)与国外申请者相关的重要信息--欧洲专利生效程序

      若要使一项欧洲专利在瑞典生效,无需在瑞典通过代理来提交翻译文件,但建议提供至少一个有效地址。

  瑞典已批准了有关实施EPC第65条规定的“伦敦协议”,并已于2008年生效。若一项欧洲专利在EPO获批时所用的语言为英语,在瑞典应提交瑞典语的翻译文件以使其生效。对于以法语或德语获批的欧洲专利,申请人可以选择提交瑞典语的全部文件翻译,或者提交瑞典语的声明及英语的描述和图片。这将节省一定的成本,因为部分“伦敦协议”的缔约国可以接受英语的描述。

  (6)国际专利

      由于很长时间以来,瑞典始终以创新来驱动本国的出口,大部分瑞典专利申请者都十分清楚对于其创新成果的国际保护的重要性。专利申请数据充分体现了这一情况,同时也能反映出瑞典和欧洲专利体系的无缝衔接,例如,2011年,瑞典籍申请者共向EPO提交了4,730项申请,而向瑞典专利注册局提交的申请则仅有2,000项。

  早在20世纪70年代,EPC和PCT合作启动之初,瑞典便加入其中。1978年,瑞典专利注册局成为PCT下的国际检索单位和国际初步审查单位。其最新的进展为与日本专利局和美国专利商标局建立了PCT专利审查高速通道(PCT-PPH)协议。PCT-PPH项目对专利申请所带来的好处是比正常的审查日要提前很多。

  (7)补充保护证书(SPC)

      瑞典专利保护的最长期限是20年。根据欧盟法律规定,药品及植物保护剂的专利期限可依照第469/2009条有关药品补充保护证书的规定(EC)以及第1610/96条有关植物保护剂补充保护证书的规定(EC)延长5年。补充保护证书的保护范围包括活性化合物及专利所保护的其他化合物,同时须经瑞典药品署或欧洲委员会以及瑞典化学品管理局批准在市场上进行销售。SPC的保护期自专利有效期截止日起,最长不超过5年。

  如果专利持有人通过了药品的儿童适用性测试并且该药品获批可以在所有欧盟国家进行销售,则该药品的SPC可以延长6个月。此项规定依照第1901/2006条有关儿科用药的规定(EC)。

  商标

      在瑞典的申请注册商标有三种途径:申请国际商标用于瑞典,申请欧盟商标,或者申请瑞典国内的商标

  2011年7月1日,瑞典的新《商标法案》正式生效,取代了1960年颁布的旧《商标法案》及《集体商标法案》,并加入了多处重要修订。

  未注册的商标可以在瑞典获得保护,前提是该商标在瑞典市场得以建立。若该商标所代表的商品和/或服务为相关消费者所熟知,则可认为该商标成立。未注册的商标与注册商标享有同等的法律保护。然而,由于未注册商标在行使其权利时对证明材料有着很高的要求,同时在具体执行中也存在很大的不确定性,因此建议进行商标注册。

  为申请注册瑞典国内的商标,一个商标应具备至少一个能用图形或文字来表示的标记,例如词语、标志、字母、数字及商品或包装的外形。商标注册申请由瑞典专利注册局和瑞典专利注册局审查其绝对的和相对的优先取舍权。绝对的优先取舍权取决于商标本身,若其缺乏显著性或者有可能对公众造成欺骗或侵犯,则可予以驳回。除此以外,还可根据与第三方有关的相对优先取舍权决定是否驳回商标申请。最重要的相对优先取舍权是在商标与交易过程中的某个商号、已注册的并在瑞典生效的某个国内商标、欧共体商标或国际商标极易混淆时,或者恶意使用某个标识时,该申请可予以驳回。

  在必要时,瑞典专利注册局将发布审查决定书,为申请者至少提供一次跨越障碍的机会。若通过PRV的审查,商标将被注册,并且自注册商标公布日起将有为期3个月且不可延长的异议期。

  若对PRV的最终决定有异议,可上诉至专利上诉法院,进而可上诉至最高行政法院。每十年商标必须重新注册。

  外观设计专利

      在瑞典,产品的外观可通过外观设计专利进行保护。申请途径主要为:通过海牙体系进行国际申请并应用于欧共体;申请欧共体外观设计专利注册;申请瑞典国内外观设计专利

  未注册的外观设计专利在瑞典可通过未注册的欧共体外观设计专利得到保护。未注册的欧共体外观设计专利自其在公众中启用之日起可以在欧共体范围内使用3年。然而,此类专利只能保护其不被复制,而不能在与其他独立设计的外观设计专利的纠纷中得以保护。而注册的外观设计专利却可以防止任何人对其进行使用。

  注册的欧共体外观设计专利是一项专有的可以保护一个产品或该产品的一部分外观的权利,包括产品的特征如线条、轮廓、颜色、形状、纹理和/或材质。其要求为新颖、特点鲜明并且在正常使用中可见。注册的欧共体外观设计专利自注册日起有5年的期限,并且随后可每5年更新一次,最长可达25年。

  瑞典国内外观设计专利注册依照《外观设计专利法案》(1970:485),可以保护产品的全部或部分外观,主要包括线条、轮廓、颜色、形状、纹理或材质等细节或装饰。其要求为新颖和特点鲜明。若产品的某个特点在正常使用中可见,则该设计可以受到保护。

  在获得瑞典专利注册局批准后,外观设计专利将被注册,并且在设计公布日起有两个月的异议期。

  若对瑞典专利注册局的最终决定有异议,可上诉至专利上诉法院,进而可上诉至最高行政法院。瑞典国内的外观设计专利注册自注册日起有5年的期限,并且随后可每5年更新一次,最长可达25年。

  版权

      版权是指作家、作曲家、艺术家及其他创作者对其文学或艺术作品所享有的权利。版权保护依照《版权法案》(1960:729),并且在作品创作完成后自动对其进行保护,通常延续至作者去世后70年。版权及其相关的权利中包含一项精神权利,即被称为创造者的权利,以及一项经济权利,即作品的作者可以控制其作品的发行量并决定是否将其作品公之于众。精神权利是不能转移的(不可让与),而经济权利则可以由所有者进行授予。在瑞典无法进行版权注册。然而,由于版权侵权的存在,并由此而带来一些版权诉讼,建议保留一些证明材料以证实原作诞生的日期。瑞典的IP代理机构可以提供多种低成本且在法律上有力的方法以实现这一点。

 

In the Nordic region, Sweden is the major nation in terms of economic volume and therefore an important strategic jurisdiction for IP protection for foreign stakeholders who have sales or production activities in the Nordic countries, or who exchange goods or services with the region.

Sweden is a member of most international conventions and treaties relating to intellectual property rights, including the Paris Convention (Stockholm Act), the Berne Convention, the Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization, the European Patent Convention, the Patent Cooperation Treaty, the WTO/TRIPs agreement and the Madrid Protocol. Moreover, as a member of the European Union, Sweden implements all European Community regulations on industrial property.

Patent

Legal framework

National Swedish patents are granted and enforced in accordance with the Patents Act (1967:837) and with the implementing regulation in the Decree on Patent Formalities (1967:838) and the Patent Office Regulations (PRVFS 2007:4). The latest revision of the Guidelines for Examination (RL) was effected on 1 July 2011. Decisions by the Patent Office can be appealed to the Court of Patent Appeals (PBR).

The Supreme Administrative Court has the power to revise PBR decisions. The 5th Division of the District Court in Stockholm is competent to hear infringement, declaratory and post-grant validity proceedings. It is common practice to consolidate infringement and validity proceedings relating to the same patent. Subject to obtaining a leave to appeal, a party adversely affected by a District Court judgment may appeal to the Svea Court of Appeals and the Supreme Court.

Grant procedure.

The substantive legal framework for granting national patents is fully harmonized with the European Patent Convention (EPC), both as regards legislation and jurisprudence. In its judgment RÅ 1990 ref. 84 (Philips Gloeilampenfabrieken; 13 June 1990), the Supreme Administrative Court announced that the case law of the Boards of Appeal of the European Patent Office (EPO) is to be followed by national Swedish courts in cases where validity is at issue.

As regards administrative provisions, Sweden ratified the Patent Law Treaty in 2007 and thus satisfies internationally recognized minimum requirements concerning inter alia extension of time limits, continued processing and reinstatement of rights (Arts. 11 and 12 PLT). Failure to comply with a time limit fixed by the PRV can be remedied by requesting continued processing under Sec. 15 of the Patents Act, for which a low fee but no substantive argumentation is required. On request, a total or partial loss of rights due to non-compliance with one of the certain further time limits may, pursuant to Sec. 72 of the Patents Act, be deemed not to have ensued (restitutio in integrum) if it can be demonstrated that all due care required in the circumstances had been taken. It is pointed out that such a request must be filed within one year of the expiry of the non-observed time limit and that “non-intentionality”, as applied by some PLT contracting states, is not sufficient for reinstatement to be granted.

Post-grant opposition, limitation and revocation

Similarly to Art. 99 EPC, the Swedish Patents Act allows oppositions to be filed within nine months after grant of a patent. In addition to the grounds exhaustively listed in Art. 100 EPC, a national Swedish patent may be opposed if the patentee lacks entitlement. This permits third parties to settle an entitlement dispute in the efficient administrative framework of opposition proceedings rather than before the District Court.

The patentee may of his own volition request limitation and revocation ab initio, similarly to the provisions in Art. 105a EPC. This may be relevant when the patentee has become aware of prior art prejudicial to the maintenance of the patent in its present scope of protection. The request for limitation may be made after lapse of the patent. A request for limitation of a European patent validated in Sweden may be filed either with the PRV, with effect for Sweden only, or with the European Patent office, with effect for all contracting states. In the latter case, the European Patent is to be re-validated in Sweden to reflect its new scope.

Important information to foreign applicants - national patents

While the working language of the PRV is Swedish, its examining corps is bilingual. Hence, the PRV accepts patent applications in the English language and will issue a first substantive action on the merits without requiring a translation. The PRV translates the action into English on request. At that point, depending on the importance of the invention and the severity of any prior art rejections, the applicant may choose to pursue his application before the office or allow it to lapse. In the former case, the PRV requires a full translation of the application into English two months ahead of publication, i.e., 18 months after the priority date. Applicants having no place of business or residence in Sweden are required to appoint an agent, as provided by Sec. 12 of the Patents Act.

Important information to foreign applicants - validation of European patents

For the purpose of validating a European patent in Sweden, appointment of an agent in Sweden is not required for filing the translation, but the furnishing of at least an address for service is recommended.

Sweden has ratified the London Agreement on the application of Article 65 of the EPC, which entered into force in 2008. A European patent, for which the language of proceedings before the EPO was English, is validated in Sweden by filing a translation of the claims into Swedish. For a European patent granted in French or German, the applicant may choose to file a full translation in Swedish. Alternatively, he can validate the patent by filing a translation of the claims in Swedish and a translation of the description and drawings in English. This may be a cost-effective option if validation is to be carried out in several London Agreement states that accept an English translation of the description.

International patents

Because of the nation’s long history of innovation-driven export, Swedish applicants are generally well aware of the importance of securing international protection for their innovations. This situation - as well as the seamless integration of the Swedish and European patent systems - manifests itself in the filing statistics: in 2011, applicants of Swedish nationality filed 4,730 applications with the EPO but a mere 2,000 applications with the PRV.

Sweden participated in the EPC and PCT co-operations from their inception in the 1970s. The PRV was appointed International Search Authority and International Preliminary Examination Authority under the PCT as early as in 1978. It has recently developed this role by concluding PCT Patent Prosecution Highway (PCT-PPH) agreements with the Japan Patent Office and the United States Patent and Trademark Office. Applications benefiting from the PCT-PPH programme are fast-tracked ahead of their normal examination date.

Supplementary Protection Certifcate (SPC)

The maximal term of patent protection in Sweden is twenty years. Under the European Union law, the term of patents for medicinal products and plant protection products can be extended by up to five years pursuant to Regulation (EC) No. 469/2009 concerning the creation of a supplementary protection certificate for medicinal products and Regulation (EC) No. 1610/96 concerning the creation of a supplementary protection certificate for plant protection products. A Supplementary Protection Certificate (SPC) covers the active compound or compounds which are protected by the patent and which are authorized for sale in the market by the Medical Products Agency or the European Commission, and the Swedish Chemicals Agency. The SPC’s term of protection begins when the validity of the patent has expired and in no case exceeds five years.

An SPC for a medicinal product can, in turn, be extended by six months if the patent owner has tested the medicinal product’s suitability for children and the product is authorized for sale in all EU member states. This follows according to Regulation (EC) No. 1901/2006 on medicinal products for paediatric use.

Trademarks

To register a trademark in Sweden, an application can be filed as an international application designating Sweden, a Community trademark or a national Swedish application.

A new Trademark Act (2010:1877) came into force in Sweden on 1 July 2011, replacing the previous Trademark Act of 1960 and the Collective Marks Act and introducing some important amendments.

Protection for unregistered trademarks is available in Sweden on condition that the mark is established on the Swedish market. Establishment is achieved if the mark is sufficiently well recognized by the relevant consumers of the mark for the goods and/or services to which it applies. An unregistered trademark enjoys the same protection as a registered trademark. However, due to the high level of proof required when invoking such rights and the uncertainty that is linked with this, it is advisable to register trademarks.

In order to enjoy registered protection through a national Swedish application, a trademark should consist of any sign that can be represented graphically, such as words, logotypes, letters, numerals, or the shape of goods or packages. Every application is examined by the Swedish Patent and Registration Office, PRV, on both absolute and relative grounds for refusal ex officio. The absolute grounds for refusal relate to the trademark itself, and include objections such as lack of distinctiveness or a risk that the mark is likely to deceive the public or cause offence. In addition to absolute grounds for refusal, objections may also be raised on relative grounds, relating to the rights of third parties. The most important relative grounds for refusal are when marks are confusingly similar to a name or trade name that is being used in the course of trade, a previously registered national trademark, Community trademark or international trademark valid in Sweden, or a mark is applied for in bad faith.

When necessary, the PRV may issue an office action in the application, providing the applicant with at least one opportunity to overcome the obstacle. Once approved by the PRV, the application will be registered and a non-extendable opposition period of three months then begins on the date of publication of the registered mark.The final decision of the PRV can be appealed to the Court of Patent Appeals and thereafter, the Supreme Administrative Court. Trademarks must be renewed every ten years.

Designs

A product’s appearance can be protected in Sweden by design protection. Registrations covering Sweden can be made by filing an international application through the Hague System designating the European Community, by filing an application for a Registered Community Design or by filing a national Swedish application.

Protection for unregistered designs is available in Sweden through the Unregistered Community Design. The Unregistered Community Design lasts for three years from the date on which the design is first made available to the public within the European Community. However, the Unregistered Community Design can only be enforced against copying and not against independently created designs. A registered right, on the other hand, can be enforced against anyone using the registered design.

A Registered Community Design is an exclusive right protecting the appearance of a product or part ofit, resulting from the features; in particular, the lines, contours, colours, shape, texture and /or material(s). The requirements are novelty, individual character and that the design is visible in normal use. A Registered Community Design initially has a life of five years from the date of filing and can be renewed for subsequent periods of five years up to a maximum of 25 years.

The Swedish national design registration is governed by the Design Act (1970:485) and allows protection for the appearance of a product or part of a product resulting from the product’s detail or ornaments, especially lines, contours, colours, shapes, textures or materials. The requirements are novelty and individual character. A component of a product can be protected if it is visible during normal use of the product.

When approved by the PRV, the design application will be registered and an opposition period of two months begins on the date of publication of the mark.

The final decision of the PRV can be appealed to the Court of Patent Appeals and thereafter, the Supreme Administrative Court. The registration of a Swedish national design initially has a life of five years from the date of filing and can be renewed for subsequent periods of five years up to a maximum of 25 years.

Copyright

Copyright is the right that writers, composers, artists and other creators enjoy for their literary or artistic creations. It is regulated by the Copyright Act (1960:729) and provides automatic protection arising on creation of the work and normally lasting for 70 years after the death of the creator. Copyright and associated rights consist of a moral right, such as the right to be named as the creator, and an economic right that gives the creator control over the production of copies and the right to make the creation public. The moral right is non-transmissible (inalienable), but the economic right can be assigned by the owner. It is not possible to register copyright in Sweden. However, if copyright piracy may be anticipated,  future copyright litigation cannot be excluded, it is advisable to preserve evidence proving the date of conception of the original work. A Swedish IP agent can indicate various cost-effective and legally persuasive ways to achieve this.

文章内容归本刊版权所有,若要转载,请先获得本刊同意,并需标注出自《国际知识产权事务所名录》



免责声明:凡本网注明"来源:XXX(非中国知识产权杂志出品)"的作品,均转载自其它媒体,转载目的在于传递更多信息,并不代表本网赞同其观点和对其真实性负责。本网转载其他媒体之稿件,意在为公众提供免费服务。如稿件版权单位或个人不想在本网发布,可与本网联系,本网视情况可立即将其撤除。新闻纠错:010-52188215,邮箱:chinaip@hurrymedia.com

会员留言


只有会员才可以留言, 请注册登陆

查询及评价系统

文章检索

关键词:

在线调查

据悉,正在修订中的《专利法》四修,拟将恶意侵权专利赔偿额度从原有的最高三倍上限调整到最高五倍,五倍赔偿已经是目前世界上最高的赔偿额度,对此,你有什么看法?

没有考虑过
合理,打击侵权,确有必要
不合理,赔偿过高,国际上并无先例