特立尼达和多巴哥知识产权概况

总第64期 China IP发表,[专利]文章

  特立尼达和多巴哥是绝大多数国际知识产权条约的签约国,其知识产权立法全部符合《与贸易有关的知识产权(包括假冒商品贸易)协议(草案)》的规定。立法内容涵盖专利、实用新型、商标、工业设计、版权、地理标志、集成电路,植物新品种和不正当竞争。

  专利和实用新型

  《1996年版专利法案》及其附属规定于1997年12月1日生效。随着新法案的生效,原来承袭英国的简易登记机制废止了。新法案引入了完整的查询和审查机制,并设立了知识产权局,局长由一位总管担任,负责在全国范围内所有知识产权法的实施。

  专利审批有三项标准:新颖性,发明步骤和工业应用。这里的新颖性指在世界范围内有新颖性。专利制度采取在先登记制度,专利只授予专利发明者及其继承人,公示期为一年。如果没有异议,专利将在通过手续审查和实质性审查后授予。

  从申请日起,专利有效期为20年,专利保护期从专利发布日开始计算。因为特立尼达和多巴哥是《巴黎公约》和《专利合作条约》的成员国,其专利可在其他成员国享有在先申请的优先权。

  从申请日的第一年开始,需每年缴纳年金。年金支付有6个月宽限期,过期仍未支付的,将视为撤回该项专利申请。本条款适用于自愿和非自愿授权。

  法律还规定,实用新型的授予与专利的授予标准只在发明步骤上有所不同。实用新型的有效期和保护期分别为申请后和发布后的10年。在授予专利前,专利申请将转为实用新型,反之亦然。实用新型不需交费。

  商品和服务商标

  现行的商标法以1938年英国商标法为蓝本,在1996年全面修正,以符合以《与国际贸易有关的知识产权协议》和《商标法协议》为主的各国际条约的要求。

  可注册的商品和服务商标包括文字、图案、人名、签名、字母、数字、产品包装和形状。商标本身必须具有独特性,或者通过使用获得独特性。商标的注册和延展不以商标使用为前提,但是连续3年或在更长时间段内不使用注册商标,将使其易于因第三方申请而被宣布无效。法律允许驰名商标注册,驰名商标的认定需得到特立尼达和多巴哥该领域的认可,包括广告信息。商标法也支持跨类商标申请,特立达尼和多巴哥现在使用第七版国际分类标准。注册商标有十年有效期,商标有效期可以无限次延展,每次十年。

  外观设计

  现行法律废止了承袭英国的旧法案,同时,鉴于新法案在道德层面和公共秩序并无冲突,它还拓宽了可注册的外观设计的组成部分。该法案规定的新颖性仍是世界范围内的新颖性。公示期为12个月。该法案采取在先登记制度,登记权属于设计者所有。多种设计如果属于同一类别、用于成套使用或者组成要素相同,则可以一个申请中体现。审查的内容主要是申请的设计是否符合标准,若无人提出异议,则允许注册。

  外观设计的登记期为自申请日起5年,保护期为自登记日起5年。延续期为两个连续的5年。

IP OVERVIEW - TRINIDAD & TOBAGO

Trinidad and Tobago is a signatory to most major international intellectual property (IP) treaties and its IP laws are all TRIPS compliant.  They include protection for patents and utility certificates, trademarks, industrial designs, copyright, geographical indications, integrated circuits, new plant varieties and unfair competition.

Patent & Utility Certificates

The Patents Act 1996 came into force on December 1, 1997 with the accompanying rules.  The new law repealed the former legislation which was a simple registration system inherited from the British.  It introduced a full search and examination system and created the Intellectual Property Office (IPO), headed by a Controller, who is responsible for the administration of all IP laws in the country.

There are three criteria for the grant of a patent: novelty, inventive step and industrial application, and novelty is universal novelty.  It is a first-to-file system and a patent may only be granted to the inventor or his successor-in-title.  A grace period of one year is allowed for public disclosure.  The patent is granted after a formalities examination followed by a substantive examination, with no provision for opposition.

The term of a patent is 20 years from the date of filing application and protection commences from the date of publication.  As Trinidad and Tobago is a member of the Paris Convention and the Patent Co-operation Treaty, the priority of an earlier patent application filed in member countries can be claimed.

Annuities are payable in advance, starting from the first anniversary of the filing date.  A six-month grace period for payment of annuities is provided and non-payment of annuities will result in the patent or application being deemed lapsed or withdrawn.  Provision is made for voluntary and non-voluntary licenses.

The law also makes provision for the grant of utility certificates (UC) with the same criteria for a patent except for inventive step.  The term of a UC is ten (10) years from date of filing and protection commences on publication.  At any time before grant of an application for a patent, an application may be converted into a UC application or vice versa.  No annuities are payable for UCs.

Trade & Service Marks

The current trademark law is based on the 1938 UK trade mark legislation, with radical changes made in 1996, in order to comply with obligations under various international treaties, mainly TRIPS and the Trademark Law Treaty.

Registrable trade and service marks include words, devices, names, signatures, letters, numerals, packaging of goods or their shape.  Marks must be distinctive or capable, through use, of becoming distinctive.  Use is not a requirement for filing application or on renewal, but non-use for a continuous period of three (3) or more years from registration may make the mark vulnerable to removal from the Register on application by a third party.  The law provides for registration of well-known marks, and in order to determine whether a mark is well known, account must be taken of knowledge of the mark in the trade in Trinidad and Tobago, including knowledge obtained through advertising.  Multiclass applications are allowed and the 7th edition of the international classification is currently in use in Trinidad & Tobago.  The initial term of a mark is ten (10) years from date of application and the mark can be renewed indefinitely for additional ten (10) year periods.

Industrial Designs

The current law repealed the antiquated design law inherited from the British and gives a broad definition of what constitutes a registrable industrial design, provided that it is new and not contrary to public order on morality.  Novelty is universal novelty.  A grace period of twelve (12) months is allowed for public disclosure.  The law applies a first-to-file system and the right to registration belongs to the creator.  Multiple designs may be filed in one application provided they are restricted to the same class or to the same set or composition of articles.  Examination is basically for compliance with formal requirements and the design is registered with no provision for opposition proceedings.

The term of registration is for an initial period of five (5) years from the date of application, and protection commences from date of registration.  Renewals can be effected for two (2) further consecutive five (5) year periods.

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据悉,正在修订中的《专利法》四修,拟将恶意侵权专利赔偿额度从原有的最高三倍上限调整到最高五倍,五倍赔偿已经是目前世界上最高的赔偿额度,对此,你有什么看法?

没有考虑过
合理,打击侵权,确有必要
不合理,赔偿过高,国际上并无先例