日本知识产权概况

总第64期 China IP发表,[专利]文章

  知识产权概况

  受经济衰退的影响,日本的专利,外观设计和商标的申请数量在不断减少。《专利法》在2011年进行了修订,并将于2012年4月1日起实施。根据修订,“缺乏新颖性的例外”的规定将同样适用于发明已被其发明人或专利申请人通过销售和电视通告等方式公开的情况。此外,进行修改的还有无效申诉和修正申诉体系。《专利审查指南》也已修订并实施,现在根据要求,审查员必须提供详细原因,援引技术常识说明申请为何没有达到支持要求。

  专利

  在2011年6月,日本专利局(也称为日本特许厅)公布了2010年专利申请和注册的数量。在2010年,专利申请量为344,598项,与2009年相比,同比下降1.0%。实用新型的申请数量为8,679项,与2009年相比同比下降9.0%。工业设计申请量为31,756项,与2009年相比同比上升2.9%。2010年的专利注册量同比上升了15%,达到222,639项。实用新型注册量同比下降5%,只有8,571项。工业设计注册量同比下降4.8%,为27,438项。

  日本专利局和中国国家知识产权局(SIPO)在2011年11月1日开始了专利审查高速路(PPH)试点项目。此前,日本专利局已和美国专利商标局、韩国知识产权局、英国知识产权局和欧洲专利局开展了专利审查高速路项目的合作。

  2011年,在知识产权最高法庭受理的有关日本专利局最终反对审计的撤销按的平均胜率从去年的33%下降到22%。然而,正如以下两判决展示的一样,知识产权最高法庭正在尝试建立关于创造性步骤审查的标准:

  (1)当判断争议发明是否可以轻易完成时,必须判断发明中“有待解决的问题”是否容易提出,以及“解决问题的特定结构”是否易于被人们采用。即使“解决问题的特定结构”易于被人们采用,当“有待解决的问题”本身具有独特性(即该问题不容易被提出)时,发明中仍然可能存在创造性步骤。在判断“有待解决的问题”是否容易提出时,往往会受事后的和主观想法的影响。为防止事后的和主观想法影响对该问题的判断,在判定该问题时必须提出建立在客观证据上的、符合逻辑的解释。做出这样的解释的一个非常重要的前提就是准确地把握发所能解决的问题(Heisei 22(2010)(Gyo-ke)10075)。

  (2)引用文献1和2中都没有关于在上述文献中描述的结构上应用众所周知的螺旋安装法的动机或建议的描述。在文献1中描述的“发明”使用了嵌缝安装法,以解决生产阳螺丝的成本问题,并排除了争议发明中的安装方法。因此,我们可以认定存在阻碍因素,使得螺旋安装法不能应用于文献1中描述的发明(Heisei 22 (2010) (Gyo-ke) 10184)。

  商标

  2010年,日本商标申请量为107,735件,同比下降5.1%,达到过去10年最低水平。在2007年商标申请量触顶达到143,221件后,日本的商标申请量就逐年下滑。尽管下降速度已经不是那么几句了,但未来数年新商标的申请量依然会呈下降趋势。

  在2011年,日本对《商标法》进行了调整。最大的变化是删除了关于在先商标失效一年内,不能注册同样的或者类似的商标的规定。这一修改主要是为了迎合商标申请人即时登记的需要。修改后的《商标法》已于2012年1月开始实施。

  IP Overview

  The numbers of patent and design applications and trademark applications are still decreasing reflecting the economic recess in Japan.  The Patent Law was amended in 2011 and will be enforced on April 1, 2012.  According to the amendment, the “exception to lack of novelty” will also be applicable to inventions which have become publicly disclosed by any conduct by the inventor/applicant including sales and announcement on television.  The invalidation appeal and correction appeal systems were also revised.  Patent Examination Guidelines were also amended and enforced, in which the examiner is now required to specifically indicate the reason why the support requirement has not been met, by referring to technical common knowledge.

  Patents

  In June, 2011, the JPO published the numbers of applications and registrations during 2010. The number of patent applications in 2010 decreased by 1.0% year on year to 344,598. The number of utility model applications decreased by 9.0% year on year to 8,679. The number of design applications increased by 2.9% year on year to 31,756. The number of patent registrations in 2010 increased by 15% year on year to 222,639. The number of utility model registrations decreased by 5.0% year on year to 8,571. The number of design registrations decreased by 4.8% year on year to 27,438.

  The JPO and China’s State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) commenced the PPH pilot program on 1 November 2011. The PPH pilot programs between the JPO and the USPTO, KIPO, UK-IPO, EPO and so forth have already been started.

  The average win rate in IP High Court decisions in lawsuits for revocation of the JPO appeal board’s final rejections was decreased to 22% from the previous year’s win rate of 33%.  However, the IP High Court is trying to establish the standard for examination of inventive step as shown in the following two decisions:

  When determining whether the claimed invention could have been easily reached, it is necessary to judge whether “the problem to be solved” by the claimed invention could have been easily built and whether “the particular structures to solve the problem” could have been easily adopted.  Even if “the particular structures to solve the problem” can be easily adopted, the claimed invention might have an inventive step when “the problem to be solved” is unique (difficult to figure out).  When judging whether “the problem to be solved” could have been easily built, ex post facto and subjective thought tends to be easily introduced.  In order to prevent such ex post facto and subjective thought from being introduced, logical explanation must be made based on objective evidences.  As a premise for such explanation, it is very important to accurately grasp the problem to be solved by the claimed invention (Heisei 22 (2010) (Gyo-ke) 10075).

  Neither of the cited references #1 and #2 describes motivation or suggestion to apply a well known spirally or threadably mounting method to the structures disclosed in the cited references #1 and #2.  The “cited invention” disclosed in the reference #1 utilizes a caulking mounting method in order to solve a cost problem in manufacturing a male screw, and keeps out the threadably mounting method which the present invention adopts.  Therefore, we should say that there is a preventing factor that prevents the threadably mounting method from being applying to the “cited invention” disclosed in the reference #1 (Heisei 22 (2010) (Gyo-ke) 10184).

  Trademarks

  107,735 trademark applications were filed in 2010 - 5.1% below the previous year.  This is the lowest number in the past decade. The number of trademark applications continues to decline after peaking at 143,221 in 2007. Although the rate of decline is getting less steep, new applications will be on a declining trend for the next few years.

  In the year 2011, some amendments were made to the Trademark Law. The major change is removal of the one-year period during which a trademark that is identical or similar to a lapsed trademark is prohibited from being registered.  This amendment is primarily intended to meet the Applicants’ needs for prompt registration.  The amended Trademark Law has come into force since January 1, 2012 already.

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据悉,正在修订中的《专利法》四修,拟将恶意侵权专利赔偿额度从原有的最高三倍上限调整到最高五倍,五倍赔偿已经是目前世界上最高的赔偿额度,对此,你有什么看法?

没有考虑过
合理,打击侵权,确有必要
不合理,赔偿过高,国际上并无先例