墨西哥知识产权概况

总第65期 文/China IP发表,[专利]文章

  墨西哥参加了保护知识产权的多个国际组织。墨西哥政府加强了国内的法律体系保护知识产权,1991年制定了一部新的工业产权法,1997年制定了一部新的著作权法。这些法律将产品专利保护延伸至几乎所有的生产工艺和产品,包括化学、铝合金、医药、生物技术和植物品种,并将专利保护的期限延长至自提出申请之日起14到20年;而且最重要的是增加了几种可获得著作权保护的对象。商标可授予10年的延展期限。知识产权受侵犯可以获得大范围的刑事、行政和民事司法救济。

  专利

  专利要求新颖性、创造性和工业实用性。如果一项发明不是现有技术,则该项发明可被认为是新颖的;创造性活动指一个提供创造的过程,该过程能使一个具有行业内经验的人获得无法从现有技术中获得的结果。

  理论或者科学原理,自然现象的发现、方案、计划,进行智力活动、比赛或者业务的规则和方法,外科手术、治疗或诊断的方法以及计算机程序等不能获得专利保护。

  在墨西哥,发明的时间与优先权的决定无关。在墨西哥,最先提起专利申请的人被认为是发明者,并成为专利所有人。

  专利权可以依照当事方自行谈判的条件许可给他人。墨西哥1991年颁布的促进和保护工业产权法规定,可以为广泛的发明授予专利保护,包括化学、植物品种和生物技术生产工艺。

  商标

  从墨西哥工业产权部门接受注册时起,商标所有人就对该注册商标拥有独占性权利。

  商标在整个墨西哥领域内享有强有力的保护。商标和服务标识可以注册,有效期为10年,而且10年后可以续展。只有可视的标识才能够注册。如果一个商标与另一个商标相似程度可导致混淆,则该商标不能注册。

  以下行为构成商标侵权:1).使用与某一注册商标相混淆的商标,而且用于该注册商标所保护的相同或相似的产品或者服务;2).未经商标所有权人同意,使用与注册商标相混淆的相似商标或者公司名称;3).要约出售或者流通与某个注册商标所适用的相同或者相似的产品,而且明知该注册商标在未经其商标持有人同意的情形下被使用在这些产品上。

  著作权

  墨西哥的著作权是由墨西哥著作权法保护的。

  这部法律制定于1984年,于1991年修订后包含了计算机程序的著作权保护。根据墨西哥著作权法,以下作品能够获得著作权的保护:文学作品、音乐作品、戏剧作品、舞蹈表演或者图画、雕塑作品、卡通、建筑作品、电影作品、音像作品、广播和电视节目、计算机软件(包括数据库、但是对于其他软件或者硬件可能产生危害影响的软件排除在著作权保护范围之外)以及编辑过的摄影作品,前提是这些作品属于智力创造。如前所述,数据库也可作为编辑作品获得著作权保护,只要数据的选择和安排属于智力创造。

  这部著作权法规定,由于艺术或者文学作品是以有形方式固定下来的,所以只有那些原创的,而且是通过某种手段可以传播、复制的作品才允许在国家版权研究所注册并给予著作权保护。尽管著作权不经注册即可获得保护,但还是主张对著作权进行注册以获得确凿的证据在案件诉讼中支持其维权主张。

  墨西哥著作权法于2003年经过再次修订,并于2003年7月24日起生效。该次修订将作品版权中经济利益的受保护期限从作者终生加上作者去世后75年改为作者终生加上作者去世后100年。此外,作者对其原创作品之衍生作品所拥有的相关权利也有所提高。在墨西哥,知识产权仍然处在发展阶段。已经出现几起影响较大的非法复制的侵权案

  Mexico is a member of most international organizations regulating the protection of intellectual property rights.

  The Mexican government strengthened its domestic legal framework for protecting intellectual property with the promulgation of a new industrial property law in 1991 and a new copyright law in 1997. These laws extend product patent protection to nearly all processes and products, including chemicals, alloys, pharmaceutical, biotechnology and plant varieties; extend the term of patent protection from fourteen to twenty years from the date of filing; and substantially increase protection for several types of copyrighted materials. Trademarks are granted for ten-year renewable periods. A wide range of criminal, administrative and civil remedies are available for intellectual property rights violations.

  Patent

  Requirements for patent are novelty, inventive activity and industrial application. An invention is considered novel when it is not state of the art. Inventive activity is a creative process providing results that cannot be obtained from the state of the art methods by a person skilled in the art.

  Excluded from patent protection are, among others, theoretical or scientific principles, discoveries of natural phenomenon, schemes, plans, rules and methods for carrying out mental acts, games or businesses, methods of surgical, therapeutic or diagnostic treatment and computer programs.

  In Mexico, the time of invention is irrelevant to determine priority. In Mexico, the person who first files the patent application is considered as the inventor and will be the owner of the future patent.

  Patents may be licensed on privately negotiated terms. The Mexican 1991 Law for the Promotion and Protection of Industrial Property provides for patenting of a broad range of inventions, including chemicals, plant varieties and biotechnological processes.

  Trademark

  The exclusive right that a trademark provides to its owner starts when registration is granted by the Mexican Institute of Industrial Property. Trademarks have strong protection within all Mexican Territory.

  Trade and service marks may be registered for a period of ten years and may be renewed every ten years. Only visible signs may be registered. If a trademark is similar to another to an extent that can cause confusion, the trademark may not be registered.

  The followings constitute trademark infringements:

  1. To use a trademark confusingly similar to another registered trademark, and to cover the same or similar products or services as those protected by the registered trademark;

  2. To use, without the consent of the holder, a registered trademark or trademark confusingly similar to an element of a trade name or a firm or corporate name

  3. The offer for sale or the placement into circulation of products equal or similar to those to which a registered trademark is applied, knowing that the trademark was used on them without the consent of its holder.

  Copyright

  Copyrights in Mexico are protected by the Mexican Copyright Act. This law was enacted in 1984 and was amended in 1991 to include computer programs. According to the Mexican Copyright Law, the following works are able to obtain protection as copyrights:

  Literary works, musical works, dramatic works, dance performances or drawings, sculptures or plastic works, cartoons, architectonic works, cinematographic works, audiovisual works, radio and TV programs, computer software (data bases are included, but software created to produce harmful effects to other software or hardware is excluded from copyright protection), and photographic works of compilation, provided they constitute intellectual creations. As mentioned, databases are also copyrightable as compilations; to the extent selection and arrangement of their data constitute intellectual creations.

  The Copyright Law provides that, only those works of original creation and capable of being disseminated or reproduced by any means will be subject to registration before the Copyright National Institute as protection is obtained since the artistic or literary work is fixed in tangible means. Nevertheless, copyrights are protected without necessarily having a deposit or registration; however, registration is advisable to have evidentiary elements to support the enforcement action in litigation cases.

  The Mexican Copyright law was amended again in 2003 and such amended law came into effect from July 24, 2003. This amendment extended the normal term for the economic benefits of copyright protection from the life of the author plus seventy-five years to the life of the author plus one hundred years. Also, the rights of the author in an original work to control the exploitation of a derivative work have been improved. In Mexico, the enforcement of intellectual property rights is still in the development stage. There have been a few high profile cases of enforcement involving unauthorized duplications.



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据悉,正在修订中的《专利法》四修,拟将恶意侵权专利赔偿额度从原有的最高三倍上限调整到最高五倍,五倍赔偿已经是目前世界上最高的赔偿额度,对此,你有什么看法?

没有考虑过
合理,打击侵权,确有必要
不合理,赔偿过高,国际上并无先例