白俄罗斯知识产权概况

总第66期 China IP Magazine发表,[专利]文章

白俄罗斯知识产权概况

  白俄罗斯共和国是一个位于欧洲东部的新成立的国家。白俄罗斯北部和东部紧邻俄罗斯,南邻乌克兰,西邻波兰,西北边境与立陶宛和拉脱维亚接壤。国土面积约207,600平方公里(38%为森林,45%为农业用地),人口约为(截止2009年5月1日)9,644,500人。国内有2万多条河流和1万1千多个湖泊,并且因其湖泊的清澈而又宁静的美丽而著称于世。

  白俄罗斯将工业创新视为经济增长与发展的驱动力。2011-2015年白俄罗斯共和国政府的创新发展项目已于2011年5月26日通过。知识产权体系对于以创新为基础的白俄罗斯的发展来说是最重要的环节之一,该体系确保了作者及其他权利人的权利和合法利益得到有效的保护和执行。

  白俄罗斯是与知识产权相关的主要国际公约、条约和协议的缔约国。

商标

  白俄罗斯是马德里协议和马德里协定的成员国。

  白俄罗斯共和国的《白俄罗斯共和国商标和服务商标法(修订案)》于2010年1月25日生效。

  商标通过商标注册获得相应的保护。商标所有者享有使用及处置其商标的专有权,并有权禁止他人使用其商标

  在未经商标所有人许可的情况下,任何人都不得使用在白俄罗斯共和国领土上被保护并获得相应证书的商标(包括在履行责任和提供服务的过程中商标所有者本人及通过许可协议而获得使用权的人在互联网中(包括域名)及商品在民事流通中所使用的介绍性材料中将商标用于所注册的商品、标签和包装上,以及使用经修改后的商标,而却并没有影响到其显著性特征且不会因此而限制商标所获得的法律保护)。商标注册却无法让其所有人禁止其他人在由于所有人直接导致或因其同意而进入白俄罗斯民事流通的商品上使用其商标

  在商标的法律保护期间,如果商标所有者所采取的与商标注册相关的行为被反垄断机构或法庭判定为不正当竞争,则可以宣告该商标的全部或部分法律保护条款无效。这一规定提供了直接向法庭申诉的宝贵机会,以便保护经济主体的权力和所有合法利益,其目的在于对于违反白俄罗斯共和国《反垄断行为及推动诚信合理竞争法案》的经济主体及其竞争者,并且其经济行为可能或已经损害了其他经济主体或竞争者或者其名誉的(不正当竞争),能够使各方通过其商业行为获得合法的收益。

  注销未使用的商标需通过诉讼程序进行(2010年1月25日后,未使用商标的宽限期从5年减少至3年)。

  若商品、标签、商品包装上存在非法使用商标的行为或使用了与某商标极为相似的标识,则为盗版商品。

  新法规定转让合同、抵押或许可协议的签署方无需对合同进行登记,而应在合同立约、修改或终止时通知专利局。在通知专利局时,无需向专利局提交合同,仅需按要求的形式提交申请即可,并同时为每个商标缴纳登记费。商标登记处将进行相应的记录。登记费为合同中所标明的每个商标200美元。

  关于“驰名商标”的新条款已纳入到新法当中,其中包括驰名商标的定义以及驰名商标认定的程序。驰名商标的保护期是无限的,除非在其所属的商品范畴内已在消费者中臭名昭著。

  注册商标的保护期为十年。在所有人的要求下可将保护期再延长十年。需在商标有效期的最后一年提出申请。若所有人多缴纳50%的延长费,则可额外获得6个月的宽限期。

  集体商品商标也可在白俄罗斯进行注册。

专利

  2011年2月3日,《白俄罗斯共和国有关发明、实用新型及工业设计的法律保护的法案修订案》(以下简称《法案》)正式生效。

  《法案》对2002年12月16日生效的《发明、实用新型及工业设计专利法案》及白俄罗斯的民事法典进行了修订,尤其是在以下方面:

  与发明专利的续期、工业设计的法律保护范围、同一技术方案的几个国家专利的法律效力、因制造工业产权对象而产生的雇员和雇主所拥有的权利等有关的规定;

  增加了与专利申请人或专利权人相关的条款,即若专利申请人或专利权人由于非故意的原因而未在登记时写明优先权条款或者未及时缴纳专利证书费或年费,从而导致丧失相关权利,可以申请恢复权利。

  白俄罗斯共和国的专利共分为以下几类:

  发明专利,自注册日起有效期为20年,在某些情况下与药物、杀虫剂或农用化学品相关的专利可最多再延长5年;

  实用新型专利,自注册日起有效期为5年,最多可延长3年;

  工业设计专利,自注册日起有效期为10年,最多可延长5年;

  植物品种专利,有为此而专门制定的法案,自在国家保护植物品种登记处注册日起有效期为25年。

  集成电路设计布局图也可申请证书,并有为此而专门制定的法案,有效期为10年。

  此外,白俄罗斯共和国的民事法典将未向他人公开的含专门技术的信息,原产地名称及公司名称视为工业产权对象,并拥有受法律保护的权利。

  根据《欧亚专利公约》(1995年8月12日正式生效),欧亚发明专利可在所有缔约国,包括白俄罗斯,生效。欧亚专利的有效期为自申请日期20年。

版权

  白俄罗斯共和国2011-5-17 No.262-3法案(关于版权及其他相关权利)将于2011年12月1日生效。

  根据该法案的规定,以下作品将获得版权保护:科学作品(专著、文章、报告、科学讲座和论述、论文、设计资料等),文学和艺术作品。

  对其他相关权利的对象的保护将覆盖演出、音像制品以及无线或有线广播机构的信号传输。

  该方案对电脑程序及数据库的空间利用以及在数字环境中对科学、文学和艺术作品的使用做出了相关规定。该草案还包含若以信息获取、教学、研究及其他重要社会活动为目的可自由使用版权对象及其他相关权利的规定。

  白俄罗斯共和国在版权和其他相关权利方面加入了下列国际条约:

  · 《保护文学和艺术作品伯尔尼公约》

  · 《世界知识产权组织版权条约》

  · 《世界版权公约》(“1952年公约”)

  · 《世界知识产权组织表演和录音制品条约》

  · 《保护表演者、音像制品制作者和广播组织国际公约》

  · 《保护音像制品制作者防止非法复制公约》

  专利局(国家知识产权中心)根据白俄罗斯共和国的现行法律对作者和其他版权及其相关权利的所有者的经济权利进行集中管理和保护,以防重复性及复杂化处理同一例案件的情况的发生。

IP Overview

  The Republic of Belarus is a new independent state situated in Eastern Europe. Belarus is bounded in the north and east by Russia, in the south by Ukraine, in the west by Poland and in the northwest by Lithuania and Latvia. Its area involved about 207,600 square kilometers (38% forests, 45% agricultural land). Population (as of May 1, 2009): 9,644,500 people. There are more than 20,000 rivers and creeks and about 11,000 lakes in Belarus. Lakes are famous for its cleanliness and the quiet beauty of nature.

  Belarus considers industrial innovations as the driving force of economic growth and development. Government program of innovative development of the Republic of Belarus for 2011-2015 was accepted on May, 26th, 2011. The intellectual property system as one of the most important aspects of the innovation-based development of Belarus ensures that rights and lawful interests of authors and other right holders are adequately protected and enforced.

  Belarus is a signatory to all major international conventions, treaties and agreements regarding intellectual property rights.

【Trademarks】

  Belarus is a member of the Madrid Agreement and the Madrid Protocol.

  The Law of the Republic of Belarus "On modification and amendment of the Law of the Republic of Belarus "On the trademarks and service marks"" goes into effect on January 25, 2010.

  Trademark protection is obtained by registration. The owner of a trade mark shall have the exclusive right to use the trade mark and to dispose of it, and also the right to forbid use of the trade mark by other persons.

  Nobody can use the trade mark protected in the territory of the Republic of Belarus on which the certificate is issued (including the use of a trademark by the owner or a person that has obtained such a right in virtue of a license agreement through the application of the trademark on goods, for which it is registered, as well as on labels, packs, in the world-wide computer network Internet (including the domain names), on documents related to the introduction of a good in civil circulation, during the fulfilment of works, providing of services and the use of a trademark with modification of its certain elements that does not affect its distinctive character and does not limit the legal protection provided for a trademark), without the permission of its owner. At the same time, registration of a trade mark does not give to its owner the right to forbid to other persons use of this trade mark concerning the goods which were entered into a civil turnover in the Republic of Belarus directly by the owner of a trademark or from his consent.

  The provision of legal protection for a trademark may be fully or partially invalidated during the term of legal protection, if the actions of the owner, related to registration of the trademark were recognized by antitrust authority or court as unfair competition. This norm enshrined the opportunity to  apply directly  to the court in order to protect the economic entity's rights and lawful interests of all  the benefits, aimed at acquiring the benefits within the  business activities of economic entities and competitors that are contrary to the Law of the Republic of Belarus "The law on Counteraction to Monopolistic Activities and Promotion of Competition with the requirements of good faith and reasonableness”, and may cause or has caused damage to other economic actors - competitors or harm their reputation (unfair competition).

  The cancellation of the trademark on the basis of non-use (After January 25th 2010, the grace period of non-use of a trademark is reduced from five to three years) is conducted through court proceeding.

  It is also noted that the goods, labels, packs of goods, which are subject to an illegal application of a trademark or any designation confusingly similar to it, are piratical.

  New Law stipulates that instead of the registration of the assignment contract, pledge agreements and license agreements, the contracting parties are obliged to notify the Patent Office on conclusion, modification and termination of such contracts. For the purpose of such notification the contract should not be submitted to the Patent Office, only an application in due form with payment official fee for each trademark. The correspondent record  shall be brought into the Trademark Register. Official fee is $200 per each trademark,  indicated in the contract.

  The new special article "Well-Known Trademark" is added to the Law. The definition of a well-known trademark is introduced and the procedure for recognition of a mark as a well-known trademark is established. The term of protection of a well-known trademark is unlimited, unless its general notoriety in the Republic of Belarus is lost among the respective consumers with respect to a group of goods, for which it was declared as well-known.

  The registered trademark is protected for ten years. The term of protection may be renewed for another ten years at the request of the owner. This request is to be filed during the last year of trademark validity. The owner may be granted an additional grace period of six months under condition of a 50% increase in the renewal fee.

  Collective trademarks can also be registered in Belarus.

【Patents】

  The Law of the Republic of Belarus “On changes and amendments to certain laws of the Republic of Belarus on the matters pertaining to legal protection of patents for inventions, utility models, industrial designs” (hereinafter referred to as “Law”)  goes into effect on February 3, 2011.

  The Law introduces changes and amendments to the Law of the Republic of Belarus of December 16, 2002 “On patents for inventions, utility models, industrial designs” and to the Civil Code of the Republic of Belarus. In particular, the Law envisages:

  the rules concerning the renewal of patents for inventions, the scope of legal protection of industrial designs, the effect of several national patents for the same technical solution, certain rights of the employer and of the employee arising out of the creation of industrial property objects;

  augmenting provisions that the applicants or patentees, who lost their rights as they unintentionally failed to claim priority rights when filing or failed to pay the Patent Certificate fees or annuities on time, can apply for reinstatement of rights,

  Belarusian patents include:

  Patent for invention, with a duration of 20 years from the date of filing, and under certain circumstances can be renewed for a period up to 5 years provided that the invention relates to medication, pesticide, agrochemical;

  Patent for Utility Model; with a duration of 5 years from the date of filing, and can be renewed for a period not exceeding 3 years

  Patent for Industrial Design with a duration of 10 years from the date of filing, and can be renewed for a period not exceeding 5 years.

  Patent for Plant Variety, which is regulated by the special Law, with a duration of 25 years from the date of registration in the State Register of Protected Varieties

  Also, Certificate can be issued for Integrated Circuit Layout, which is regulated by the special Law, with a duration of 10 years.

  In addition, the Civil Code of the Republic of Belarus  regards the information, not known for other parties, know-how inclusive, appellation of origin, and company names as industrial property objects with protectable rights.

  According to the Eurasian Patent  Convention (came into force on 12 August 1995), the Eurasian Patent  for invention can be issued with validity in all the Convention’s States party to the Convention, including Belarus. The term of the Eurasian patent is twenty years from the date of filing the Eurasian application.

【Copyright

  Law of the Republic of Belarus of 17 May 2011 № 262-3 (on copyright and related rights) goes into effect on. December 01, 2011

  According to the Law, the following works are able to obtain protection as copyright: scientific works (monographs, articles, reports, scientific lectures and papers, dissertations, the design documentation, etc.), literary and artistic works.

  Protection for objects of related rights shall be conducted with respect to performances, phonograms, communication of transmissions of organizations of on-air or cable broadcasting.

  Law includes provisions that regulate relations in the sphere of exploitation of computer programs, databases, and the use of scienti?c, literary and artistic works in the digital environment. The draft law also envisages free uses of objects of copyright and related rights for information, teaching, research and other socially important purposes.

  The Republic of Belarus participates in the following international treaties in the field of copyright and related rights:

  ·Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works;

  ·WIPO copyright treaty;

  ·Universal Copyright Convention 1952;

  ·WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty;

  ·International Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations;

  ·Convention for the Protection of Producers of Phonograms Against Unauthorized Duplication of Their Phonograms.

  The Patent Office (The National Center of Intellectual Property), in pursuance of the legislation in force in the Republic of Belarus, exercises collective management of and safeguards the economic rights of authors, other copyright and related rights holders in case it is complicated to enforce the same case by case.



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据悉,正在修订中的《专利法》四修,拟将恶意侵权专利赔偿额度从原有的最高三倍上限调整到最高五倍,五倍赔偿已经是目前世界上最高的赔偿额度,对此,你有什么看法?

没有考虑过
合理,打击侵权,确有必要
不合理,赔偿过高,国际上并无先例