厄瓜多尔知识产权概况

总第68期 China IP Magazine发表,[综合]文章

  在厄瓜多尔,知识产权是受安第斯共同体(包括哥伦比亚、厄瓜多尔、秘鲁和玻利维亚)法律保护的。知识产权主要受《安共体第486号关于专利商标的决议》、《安共体第351号关于著作权及相邻权的决议》的管辖。厄瓜多尔是《巴黎公约》和世界贸易组织的成员国之一,因此也遵循世界贸易组织的《与贸易有关的知识产权协议》(TRIPs)。1998年颁布的知识产权法规范了法定的程序、行为规范及禁令等。

  厄瓜多尔知识产权协会负责知识产权的登记注册和管理。知识产权权利人可根据侵权类型在刑事或民事法庭起诉侵权人。

专利

  如果发明具备新颖性、非显而易见性及实用性(工业应用)就可获得专利。在厄瓜多尔,第二次使用、多晶型、活生物体、治疗方法等不能申请专利。自申请提交之日起,专利的保护期限为20年。

  厄瓜多尔是《专利合作条约》的成员国,进入国家阶段要在国际申请日31个月或最早优先权日内。实用新型和工业设计、植物新品种和半导体也受知识产权法保护。

  最近,知识产权局增加了专利和实用新型的维护费用,改变了计算每年年金的制度,每年的收费都各有不同。

商标

  厄瓜多尔是一个申请优先的国家,因此商标的获得需要注册。优先权的授予要根据《巴黎公约》的规定。申请时,虽然对商标的使用不是强制要求,但如果经第三方申请,三年内在安共体国家未恰当使用的商标就有可能被撤销。厄瓜多尔遵循《商标注册用商品与国际分类尼斯协定》,但是,不允许多类申请。

  在厄瓜多尔,文字标记、图形标记、三维标志、材质、气味、声音、贸易服装、商号、原产地名称、地理标志、证明商标、集体商标、标语等都可以被授予保护。另外,对于著名的商标也会被授予额外的保护。

  申请会刊登在每月出版的公报上,并且只有异议期过后注册审查才可以进行。商标的注册期限是10年,申请人可在注册期满6个月前或期满后的6个月宽限期内申请延期。

著作权

  厄瓜多尔遵循以“作者的权利(droitd'auteur)”为基础的法国知识产权作品保护条例。该条例区分了只属于作者的道德权利和可分配的经济权利。著作权及相邻权受《厄瓜多尔知识产权法》、《安共体第351号决议》、《伯尼公约和世界版权公约》的保护。法律允许累积保护,因此著作权利人可以把其著作权作为申请商标权的跳板。

 

  Intellectual Property in Ecuador is protected by the Andean Community Law which covers Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. IP is mainly governed by Decision 486 for Patents and Trademarks, and Decision 351 for Copyrights and related rights. Ecuador is also a part of the Paris Convention and member of the World Trade Organization, and therefore adopted the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs). The legal procedures, actions and injunctions are regulated by the Ecuadorian Intellectual Property Law enacted in 1998.

  The administrative agency in charge of the Intellectual Property matters is the Ecuadorian Intellectual Property Institute. An IP right owner can seek relief with the civil or criminal courts depending on the type of infringement.

Patent

  The requirements for inventions to be patentable are novelty, non-obviousness and usefulness (industrial application). Some of the non-patentable matters in Ecuador include second uses, polymorphs, live organisms, or therapeutic methods. Patents are granted for a period of 20 years from the date of the application. Ecuador is a member of the PCT, the entry to the national phase is within 31 months of the international application date or earliest priority date. Utility models and Industrial designs are also protected under the Intellectual Property Laws. Protection for Plant Varieties and Semiconductors is also granted.

  Recently the Intellectual Property Office increased the maintenance fees for patents and utility models and changed system of calculating each annuity, having a different fee for each year.

Trademark

  Ecuador is a first-to-file country, thus obtaining a registration is highly recommended. Priority can be claimed as per the Paris Convention rules. Although there is no use requirement at the time of application, a third party can file a petition to cancel the mark if it has not been properly used in any of the Andean Community countries for a period of three years. Ecuador follows the International (Nice) Classification of Goods and Services; nevertheless, multi-class applications are not allowed.

  Ecuador grants protection to word marks, figurative marks, 3D marks, textures, odors, sounds, trade dresses, trade names, appellations of origin, geographical indications, certification marks, collective marks, slogans, and provides extra protection for famous and well-known marks.

  The applications are published in the monthly gazette and a formal registration examination is conducted only after the opposition period has expired. Trademarks are protected for 10 years, and can be renewed 6 months prior to their expiration or during the 6-month grace period after the expiration date.

Copyright

  Ecuador follows the French protection of intellectual works based on the rights of the author: droit d'auteur. The system distinguishes between moral rights which belong only to the author and economic rights which can be assigned. Copyrights and related rights are protected by the Ecuadorian Intellectual Property Law, the Andean Decision No. 351, the Berne Convention and the Universal Copyright Convention. The law allows for cumulative protection, thus an owner of a copyright can assert its rights as a bar to a trademark application.

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据悉,正在修订中的《专利法》四修,拟将恶意侵权专利赔偿额度从原有的最高三倍上限调整到最高五倍,五倍赔偿已经是目前世界上最高的赔偿额度,对此,你有什么看法?

没有考虑过
合理,打击侵权,确有必要
不合理,赔偿过高,国际上并无先例