克罗地亚知识产权概况

总第68期 China IP Magazine发表,[综合]文章

  克罗地亚在知识产权法领域有较高水平的立法。克罗地亚已为其知识产权法律体系的发展制定出一套国家策略。该策略的实施可加强行政执法能力,也可带来重要投资,引起相关改革,包括司法领域的改革。同时,这一策略也需要谨慎监管。

专利

  克罗地亚关于专利的规定包含在2003年的《专利法》和2004年的《专利条例》中,这两个规定都是从2004年开始实施。克罗地亚是工业产权领域内主要国际协议的成员国。

  专利申请人需要向国家知识产权局提出其专利申请。18个月后其申请将被刊登在国家知识产权公报上。在这个阶段无须做调查报告。经公布后,申请人可以要求对专利进行实质性审查或要求双方同意的专利,即无须实质审查。根据协议,专利的实质审查可由国家知识产权局或其他专利局进行。

  在科技领域,任何具备新颖性、发明性及工业适用性的发明,均可享有为期20年的专利保护。经协商的专利有效期可为10年。自专利申请公开后6个月内,任何当事方可对该经协商的专利提出异议。

商标

  关于商标,克罗地亚是《马德里议定书》和《马德里协议》的缔约方,同时也是《尼斯协议》和《维也纳协议》的成员国。克罗地亚有关商标的立法由2004年1月1日生效的2003年《商标法》、2003年《商标条例》以及《马德里协议批准法案》组成。

  商标法列举了可作为商标予以保护的标识。经过注册的商标赋予其所有权人独占性权利以使用该商标,并阻止他人在未经其同意的情形下使用该商标。克罗地亚《商标法》的第10条规定了对于该独占性权利的一些特定限制。

  国内水平的权利用尽是可以预见的,但是可能会因为国际协议(包括加入欧盟的协议)的成员国资格而予以延伸。如果第三方经过商标权利人的同意而将有关产品投入市场,则该种使用是允许的。商标注册后5年内必须被使用,否则可能被撤销。

  如果国家知识产权组织拒绝这项申请,申请人有反驳的机会。如果申请被给予有利的评估,则申请人的注册申请将被刊登在国家知识产权组织的公报上。如果在刊登后3个月内没有任何第三方提出异议,则该商标可予以注册。注册商标的保护期限为10年,集体商标也可以注册。

工业外观设计与工业外观设计

  有关的规定已被引入克罗地亚的法律体系,即2003年《工业外观设计法》以及《工业外观设计条例》。克罗地亚是《海牙协议》及其《日内瓦法案》的成员国之一。为了能从专利保护中获益,一项工业外观设计必须是新颖的,而且具有鲜明特性。

  一项工业外观设计的权利所有人拥有独占性权利以阻止他人使用该设计。

  如果工业外观设计的形式符合要求,而且没有明显的被拒绝理由,则该申请将被公开刊登在官方公报上。

  外观设计专利的保护期限为5年,经多次续展后保护期限最高达25年。

著作权与邻接权

  在克罗地亚保护著作权与邻接权的主要依据是2003年10月通过的《著作权与邻接权条例》。在著作权保护方面,克罗地亚遵守保护文学和艺术的《伯尔尼公约》以及保护表演者、唱片制作者和广播组织的《罗马公约》,并对《罗马公约》做了3项保留。依照法律有关保护期限条款的规定,作者的著作权在作者死亡后70年内一直受到保护;如果是共同创作的作品,从共同作者中最后一位作者死亡后70年仍然受保护。复合作品中各个作者的著作权可以单独进行保护。

  根据《伯尔尼公约》,计算机软件也享有著作权保护。根据互惠原则,欧洲公民均可享受在克罗地亚国内授予的保护。国内穷竭原则也适用于计算机程序保护的规定。保护期限为自作者死亡后70年。

  Croatia has a high level of legislative alignment in the area of intellectual property rights.

  Croatia has produced a National Strategy for the development of its Intellectual Property System. Its implementation would allow adequate reinforcement of administrative capacity, which involves substantial investments and reforms, including the judiciary, and needs to be monitored carefully.

Patent

  Croatian provisions concerning patents are contained in the Patent Act of 2003 and the Patent Regulation of 2004, both in force since 2004. Croatia is party to the main international agreements in the area of industrial property.

  To request a patent, an application is lodged to State Intellectual Property Organization (SIPO). After 18 months it is published in the SIPO gazette. No search report is made at this stage. After publication, the applicant may request a patent with substantive examination, or a consensual patent, i.e. without substantive examination.

  Substantive examinations may be performed by SIPO or by another patent office on the basis of an agreement.

  Patents are granted for 20 years, to any invention in any field of technology which involves an inventive step and is susceptible to industrial applications. Consensual patents' duration is limited to 10 years. Opposition to granting the consensual patent may be filed by any interested person within six months from the publication.

Trademark

  Concerning trademarks, Croatia is party to the Madrid Protocol and the Madrid Agreement, as well as to the Nice Agreement and Vienna Agreement. The Croatian legislation on trademarks consists of the Trademark Act of 2003 in force since 1 January 2004, the Regulation on Trademarks of 2003 and the Act of Ratification of the Madrid Agreement.

  The Trademark Act contains the list of signs, which can be protected as trademarks. A registered trademark grants to its owner the absolute right to make use of itand to prevent others from using it without his consent. Certain limitations to this absolute right are laid down in Article 10 of the Croatian Trademark Act.

  Exhaustion of rights is foreseen at the national level, but would be extended by force of the membership to international agreements, including EU accession. The proprietor of the mark may not oppose its use, if the products have been put onto the market with his consent. The trademark must be used within 5 years or else can be revoked.

  The SIPO intends to refuse the application, the applicant has the opportunity to give counter arguments. In case of a favorable assessment, the application is published in the SIPO gazette, and if there are no oppositions within 3 months, the mark is registered. Protection is granted for 10 years. Collective trademarks can also be registered.

Industrial Design

  The provisions related to industrial designs have been introduced into the Croatian legal order, namely in the Industrial Design Act of 2003 and the Regulation on Industrial Designs. Croatia is party to the Hague Agreement and the Geneva Act of the Hague Agreement. In order to benefit from protection, an industrial design has to be new and present an individual character.

  The holder of a design has the exclusive right to prevent others from using the design.

  If the formalities have been complied with and no absolute grounds for refusal exist, the design is published in the official journal. Duration of protection is 5 years, renewable up to 25 years.

Copyright and Neighboring Rights

  The main legal references for copyrights and neighboring rights in Croatia are the Copyright and Related Rights Act (CA) adopted and entered into force in October 2003. In the area of copyrights, Croatia has adhered to the Berne Convention for the protection of literary and artistic works, and the Rome Convention on the protection of performers, producers and phonogram and broadcasting organizations, with three reservations to the Rome Convention.

  Provisions on terms of protection for author's rights guarantee protection for 70 years from the death of the author, or from the death of the last surviving author, in the case of joint ownership. Rights of the authors of compound works are calculated separately for each author.

  Computer programs are protected as per the Berne Convention. Protection is granted to Croatian nationals and EU citizens on the basis of reciprocity. National exhaustion also applies to provisions protecting computer programs. The duration of protection is 70 years from the death of the author.

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据悉,正在修订中的《专利法》四修,拟将恶意侵权专利赔偿额度从原有的最高三倍上限调整到最高五倍,五倍赔偿已经是目前世界上最高的赔偿额度,对此,你有什么看法?

没有考虑过
合理,打击侵权,确有必要
不合理,赔偿过高,国际上并无先例